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MLA Style Guide (7th Edition)

MLA Style Guide (7th Edition)

This brief guide provides format examples for a works cited list in the MLA (Modern Language Association ) style, based on the 7th edition. For more detailed information or format examples for other types of sources, consult the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers [Rivera Ref LB 2369. M25 2009].

Quick Tips:

  1. Your list of references should be titled: "Works Cited"
  2. MLA requires a hanging indent for its citations and should be double spaced throughout. (For formatting and space saving reasons, the citations below do not include the indents and are single spaced.)
  3. Alphabetize the works.

Print Sources

BOOK-SINGLE AUTHOR

Angelou, Maya. The Complete Collected Poems of Maya Angelou. New York: Random House, 1994. Print.

---. I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings. New York: Bantam Books, 1993. Print.

Note: If you have two or more books by the same author, the author's name in the second entry is replaced by 3 hyphens followed by a period.

BOOK - TWO-THREE AUTHORS

Rabkin, Eric S., Martin Greenberg, and Joseph Olander, eds. No Place Else: Explorations in Utopian and Dystopian Fiction. Berkeley: U of California P, 1993. Print.

BOOK - MORE THAN THREE AUTHORS

Gilman, Robert, et al. Hysteria beyond Freud. Austin: U of Texas P, 1994. Print.

BOOK - CORPORATE/ORGANIZATION AUTHOR

U.S. Department of Labor. Occupational Outlook Handbook. 2004-2005 ed. Washington, DC: Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2004. Print.

BOOK - UNKNOWN or NO AUTHOR

The Harper Collins World Atlas. New York: Scott Foresman, 1994. Print.

EDITED BOOK

Williams, Michael W., ed. The African American Encyclopedia. 6 vols. New York: Random House, 1993. Print.

CHAPTER OR ARTICLE IN AN EDITED BOOK

Milton, John. "Paradise Lost." Norton Anthology of World Masterpieces. Ed. Maynard Mack, et al. 6th ed. Vol. 1. New York: Norton, 1992. 2179-219. Print.

Note: "2179-219" are the page numbers of the cited work

GENERAL ENCYCLOPEDIA - UNSIGNED ARTICLE

"Amendment." The Encyclopedia Americana. 10th ed. 1996. Print.

GENERAL ENCYCLOPEDIA - SIGNED ARTICLE

Murphy, Bruce Allen, "Civil Rights." The World Book Encyclopedia. 12th ed. 1996. Print.

BOOK REVIEW

Updike, John. "No Brakes." Rev. of Sinclair Lewis: Rebel from Main Street, by Richard Lingeman. New Yorker 4 Feb. 2002: 77-80. Print.

JOURNAL ARTICLE - ONE AUTHOR - CONTINUOUS PAGINATION

Farmer, Kathleen U. "Biofeedback and Visualization for Peak Performance." Journal of Sport Rehabilitation 4 (1995): 1096-1103. Print.

Note: "4" is the volume number and "1096-1103" are the page numbers. No issue number or month of publication is given for a journal with continuous pagination.

JOURNAL ARTICLE - EACH ISSUE PAGED SEPARATELY

Sellards, Suzanne, and Mary Etta Millis. "Administrative issues for Use of Nurse Practioners." Journal of Nursing Administration 25.5 (1995): 64-70. Print.

Note: "25" is the volume number, "5" is the issue number, "64-70" are the page numbers. No month of publication is given.

MAGAZINE ARTICLE

Norment, Lynn. "50 Years of Fashion and Beauty." Ebony Aug. 1995: 115-118. Print.

Note: For a magazine, give complete date of publication. Do not give volume or issue number.

MAGAZINE ARTICLE - UNSIGNED

"Panther's Passage." People 18 May 1998: 70. Print.

NEWSPAPER ARTICLE - DAILY

Weidner, David. "Scientists Have Some Success against Disease with Nicotine." Winston-Salem Journal 28 Aug. 1995, city ed.: B1+. Print.

NEWSPAPER ARTICLE - DAILY - NO AUTHOR

"Cambodian Orphans Use Internet to Reach Out." Winston-Salem Journal 15 Jan. 1999, city ed.: B4+. Print.

NEWSPAPER ARTICLE - EDITORIAL

"No Golden Opportunity." Editorial. The Wall Street Journal 4 Feb. 1999, A22. Print.

Electronic Sources

FULL-TEXT JOURNAL ARTICLE ON CD-ROM

FORMAT: Author. "Article Title." Journal Title vol #. issue # (Year): page #. Publication medium--i.e. CD-ROM. Title of database. Vendor name. Electronic publication date - i.e. copyright date.

Smitherman, Geneva. "The Chain Remain the Same." Journal of Black Studies 28 (1996): 3-25. CD-ROM. Periodical Abstracts - Research I. UMI-Proquest. Dec. 1997.

ARTICLE FROM AN ONLINE NEWSPAPER

Achenbach, Joel. "America's River." Washington Post. 5 May 2002. Web. 20 May 2002.


ARTICLE FROM AN ONLINE MAGAZINE

FORMAT: Author. "Article Title." Magazine Title. Same publication information you would include for the print version. Web. Date of access.

Jeffries, Paul. "If You Don't Have a Job by Graduation." Black Collegian Online. Apr. 1998. Web. 17 Mar. 2000.

ARTICLE FROM AN ONLINE SCHOLARLY JOURNAL

Chan, Evans. "Postmodernism and Hong Kong Cinema." Postmodern Culture 10.3 (2000): n. pag. Project Muse. Web. 5 June 2008.

ARTICLE FROM A SUBSCRIPTION DATABASE

McMichael, Anthony J. "Population Environment, Disease, and Survival." Lancet 30 Mar. 2002: 1145-1148. Academic Universe: Medical Lexis-Nexis. Web. 15 Aug 2007.

ONLINE BOOK

Keats, John. Poetical Works. Krakatoa, 1884. Bartleby.com: Great Books Online. Ed. Steven van Leeuwen. Web. 15 May 2009. 

DOCUMENT/PAGE FROM A WEB SITE

Reynolds, Jane. "This Day in Technology History: August 20." History Channel. History Channel, 2002. Web. 14 May 2010.

ENTIRE WEB SITE

Hoover's Online. Hoover's Inc., 2002. Web. 19 July 2020.

Note: "2002" is the copyright date of the page/site. "19 July 2020" is the date the page/site was accessed.

FILM or VIDEO RECORDING

It's a Wonderful Life. Dir. Frank Capra. Perf. James Stewart, Donna Reed, Lionel Barrymore, and Thomas Mitchell. RKO, 1946. Film. Cite a videocassette or DVD like a film).

PERFORMANCE

Hamlet. By William Shakespeare. Dir. Michael Bay. Perf. Shia LaBeouf, Tori Spelling. Shubert Theatre, Boston. 4 Mar. 2011. Performance.

BROADCAST INTERVIEW

Breslin, Jimmy. Interview by Neal Conan. Talk of the Nation. Natl. Public Radio. WBUR, Boston. 26 Mar. 2002. Radio.

SELF-CONDUCTED INTERVIEW

Pei, I. M. Personal interview. 22 July 1993. Rowling, J.K. E-mail interview. 8-12 May 2002.

General Guidelines

MARGINS & SPACING

Both top/bottom margins and left/right margins should be set at 1”. Indent the first word of each paragraph ½” from the left margin. Indent set-off quotations 1” from the left margin. A research paper should be double-spaced throughout, including quotations, notes, and the works cited list.

PAGE NUMBERING

Number all pages consecutively throughout the research paper, including the first page and works cited page(s). Each page number is placed in the upper right-hand corner, ½ “ from the top of the paper, flush with the right margin. Include your last name before the page number on every page.

CITATIONS WITHIN TEXT

Brief parenthetical citations are inserted within the text wherever you incorporate another's words, facts, or ideas. Each parenthetical citation contains only enough information to enable the reader to find the full documentation in the works cited list. Usually the author's last name and the appropriate page number(s) are included. If the author has already been identified in the text, then only the page numbers are enclosed in parentheses.

EXAMPLES:     This same point is made by others (Smith 152-64). 
                            Smith makes this same point (152-64).

For a more detailed discussion of parenthetical citation or examples of other types of citations within text, consult the MLA Handbook, Chapter 6: Documentation: Citing Sources in the Text.

Formatting footnotes and endnotes refers to a particular type of material. Consult the MLA Handbook, Appendix B for information about creating notes.

QUOTING

When you use someone else's words or ideas, you must give credit to that person using parenthetical citations. Failure to give credit when using someone else's words or ideas is plagiarism.

EXAMPLES:

Shelley thought poets "the unacknowledged legislators of the World" (794). 

In his inaugural address, John F. Kennedy spoke of a "new frontier."

For more information on knowing when to cite your sources, please see our page on Plagiarism.

AUTHOR'S NAME(S)

Reverse the order of the author's name (only the first author if there is more than one author). If there are more than three authors, you may list the first author only and type et al, which means and others. If there is no author listed, the title of the work will be the first item in the citation. The title of the work will also be used for alphabetical purposes.

TITLE

For complete works always list the title as it appears on the title page. Capitalize the first, last, and all principle words. Titles of complete works are underlined (i.e. books, journals). Titles of works published within complete works are placed in quotation marks (i.e. articles, chapters).

Publication Information: Provide the city of publication, the publisher's name, and the date of publication. When several cities are listed, only give the first listed. For unfamiliar cities that are outside the U.S., add the abbreviation for the country. If the publication date is not listed on the title page, use the most recent copyright date. Do not precede a copyright date with a “c.”

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Last modified: 12/2/2009 3:58 PM by M. Yonezawa

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