IEEE Citation Style

In Text Citation
Citing in text is done with the [#] format. Punctuation occurs after the notation.

Example: A preliminary model was analyzed in a series of off-line computer simulations [1].

List of References
References are listed in the order that the articles appear in the text.

Journal Articles:
[#] Authorís initials authors last name, other authors, "Article title," Journal Name (typically abbreviated),vol. #, no. #, pp. #-#, Date.

Example: [1] M. Rucci, G. Tononi, "Registration of neural maps through value-dependent learning," J. Neurosci., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 334-352, Jan. 1997.

[#] Authorís initials last name, other authors, Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, date.

[2] D.O. Hebb, The Organization of Behavior. New York: Wiley, 1949.

Article in a collection:
A.J. Albrecht, "Measuring Application-Development Productivity," Programmer Productivity Issues for the Eighties, C. Jones, ed., IEEE Computer Soc. Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1981, pp. 34-43.

Article in a conference proceedings:
M. Weiser, "Program Slicing," Proc. Int'l Conf. Software Eng., IEEE Computer Soc. Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1981, pp. 439-449.

Do not include the editor's name for a proceedings unless it is carefully edited and published as a regular book

Dissertation or thesis

B. Fagin, A Parallel Execution Model for Prolog, doctoral dissertation, Univ. of California, Berkeley, Dept. Computer Sciences, 1987.

Electronic publication

L.P. Burka, "A Hypertext History of Multiuser Dimensions," MUD History, (current Dec. 5, 1995).


M. Hoff, S. Mazor, and F. Faggin, Memory System for Multi-Chip Digital Computer, US patent 3,821,715, to Intel Corp., Patent and Trademark Office, Washington, D.C., 1974.

Technical report

C. Hoffman and J. Hopcroft, Quadratic Blending Surfaces, Tech. Report TR-85-674, Computer Science Dept., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N.Y., 1985.

Technical or user manual

Unix System V Interface Definition, Issue 2, Vol. 2, AT&T, Murray Hill, N.J., 1986.

General Style Guidelines

Author names

Use each author's initials and last name. Leave no space between initials, but do leave a space between the period following the last initial and the first letter of the last name: E.F. Codd.

If there are more than three authors for an entry, use the first author's name and follow it with "et al." T.G. Lewis et al.


Capitalize the first and last words, all nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, and subordinating conjunctions. Use lowercase for articles, coordinating conjunctions, and prepositions, regardless of length. Example: Toward Better Real-Time Programming through Dataflow.

In the interest of making a source easy for researchers to find, use the title as it originally appears. Do not add or remove hyphens, change words to preferred spellings, or lowercase internal capitals.

For a complete treatment of titles see The Chicago Manual of Style 7.126-128.


Italicize names of books (including collections), magazines, journals, newsletters, theses, dissertations, proceedings, manuals, and technical reports. Use quotation marks to enclose names of articles, papers, and technical memos.


After names of cities, use the standard state abbreviations rather than postal codes when identifying publisher locations. Do not list province or state names for cities outside the US and Canada.

Include the state abbreviation for all US cities except the following: Atlanta, Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Detroit, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, St. Louis, Salt Lake City, San Francisco, and Seattle.

For publishers located outside the US, list the nation after the city. Do not include the nation for the following cities: Amsterdam, Athens, Beijing, Berlin, Brussels, Cairo, Geneva, Hong Kong, Jerusalem, St. Petersburg, London, Madrid, Mexico City, Montreal, Moscow, Paris, Rome, Stockholm, Tokyo, Toronto, Vienna, and Warsaw.

References for proceedings should tell where an interested reader can find the source, not where the conference took place. However, including the conference location (in parentheses following the conference name), often helps publishers distinguish among many similarly-named conferences. If a proceedings did not use a traditional publisher, provide the sponsoring organization and its location.

Include the department name for technical reports, technical memos, and other material that may not be indexed in a company-wide or university-wide library or by an abstracting service.


Include just the year of publication for books. Include the month and year of publication for periodicals. If a periodical appears more frequently than monthly, include the date with the month: Mar. 15, 1983. If a periodical appears quarterly, use the season or issue number, depending on the periodical's usage. If a periodical appears irregularly (several journals do), do not use the month: Vol. 16, No. 5, 1987.

Spell out all months whose names have four letters or fewer: May, June, and July. Abbreviate the other months: Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., and Dec. Hyphenate multiple-month issues: Aug.-Sept. 1984. Capitalize the names of seasons: Winter, Spring, Summer, and Fall.

"IEEE Style guide" Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (current 1/17/97)

Last modified: 4/1/2004 3:55 PM by by M. Potter