CRC Handbook of Environmental Control - 1972

CRC Handbook of Environmental Control - 1972

Volume I

Atmosphere and Air Pollutants

1.1   Atmospheric Data

    1.1-1      Components of the Atmosphere

1.1-1A   Average Composition of Dry Air

1.1-1B   Minor Constituents of Dry Air

                1.1-2      U.S. Standard Atmosphere

1.2 Air Pollution Properties

                1.2-1      Classification of Air Pollutants

                1.2-2      Chemical and Physical Properties of Potential Pollutants

                1.2-3      Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Urban Atmosphere

                1.2-4      Saturation Concentration of Mercury in Air

                1.2-5      Analysis of Condensable Pollutants

                1.2-6      Characteristics of Particles and Particle Dispersoids

                1.2-7      Mobility of Atmospheric Ions

                1.2-8      Properties of Some Typical Aerosols

                1.2-9      Diameters and Specific Gravities of Selected Grains

                1.2-10    Airborne Particle Shapes

                1.2-11    Particle Densities for Agglomerates

                1.2-12    Specific Gravities of Wind-Erosion Products, Industrial Dusts and Combustion Products

                1.2-13    Selected Particulate Constituents as Percentages of Gross Suspended Particulates

                1.2-14    Free Nonvolatile Fatty Acids as Determined in Particulate Matter of Air Pollution

                1.2-15    Chemical Analysis and Physical Properties of Fly Ash

                1.2-16    Mineral Assemblages in Atmospheric Dusts

                1.2-17    Natural Charges on Representative Particle Dispersoids

                1.2-18    Most Common Aeroallergenic Fungi

                1.2-20    Air Pollutant Reactions

                1.2-21    Rate Constant for Atomic Oxygen and Atmospheric Pollutants

                1.2-22    Rate Constant for Atomic Oxygen and Hydroxul Radicals with Some Organic Compounds

                1.2-23    Photooxidation of Aldehyde-Hydrocarbons in Air Mixtures by Sunlight

                1.2-24    Reactivities of Trichloroethylene, Propylene, and Ethylene

    1.2-25    Reactivities of Hydrocarbons Based on Ability to Participate in Photooxidation of Nitric Oxide to nitrogen Dioxide

    1.2-26    Ozone or Oxidant Yields from Photooxidation or Organic Substance Nitrogen Oxide Mixtures

    1.2-27    Eye Irritation Reactivity

    1.2-28    Primary Reactions of Sulfur Dioxide

    1.2-29    Comparison of Arrhenius Parameters, Velocity Constants and Rates of Formation of RX at 25 degrees Celsius for the reaction: R + X (+M) -> RX(+M) sup 1


1.3   Air Pollution Variables

                1.3-1      Stability of an Air Parcel, Determined by Environmental Lapse Rate

                1.3-2      Selected Air Pollution Models

                1.3-3      Diffusion Climate Data for the United States

                1.3-4      Average Wind-Speed – Selected Cities

                1.3-5      Percentage Frequency of Surface Winds

    1.3-6      The Growth of Lateral Dimensions of Plumes and Clouds Emitted from Single Sources as a Function of Residence Time in the Atmosphere

    1.3-7      Stations for Which Local Climatological Data are Issued (Likely Obsolete)

    1.3-8      Climatic Changes Produced by Cities (comparison with rural environs)
      Source: Landsberg, H. E.: City Air — Better or Worse? In symposium: Air Over Cities. Tech. Rep. A 62-5, 1–22, U. S. Public Health Service, Cincinnati, 1961.

    1.3-9      Atmospheric Dispersion of Hydrogen Sulfide Emissions


 1.4          Surveys – This section should be considered only in a historical sense, the surveys are too old to be accurate in most cases.

                1.4-1      Concentration of Aitken Nuclei in different Locations - 1938

                1.4-2      Concentration of Alternaria Spores in Manhattan Kansas - 1965

                1.4-3      Concentration of Materials in the Air - 1954

                1.4-4      National Air Sampling Levels for Particulates in Selected Cities - 1969

                1.4-5      National Air Sampling Levels for Particulates in Nonurban Areas – 1959-1969 average

                1.4-6      Suspended Particulate Levels in Cities By Population Size Groups – 1969

                1.4-7      Trends in Particulate Concentrations – 1965-1969

                1.4-8      National Air Sampling Network Data in Particulate Concentrations -  1965

                1.4-9      Dust Concentration in the ambient Air of Moscow -  1967

                1.4-10    Dustfall Values for a Number of Cities -  1950s and 60s

                1.4-11    Concentration and Particle Size of Chromium Particulates

                1.4-12    Concentration of Lead in the Atmosphere

                1.4-13    Concentrations of Large Organic Compounds in the Average U.S. Atmosphere

                1.4-14    Highest Vanadium Concentrations, U.S. cities

                1.4.15    Zinc concentrations in the Steel Industry

                1.4-16    Survey of Mercury Concentrations

                1.4-18    Gaseous Pollutant Levels, Selected Cities, 1968

                1.4-19    Estimated Antarctic Trace Gas concentrations

                1.4-20    Carbon Monoxide and Organics in the Atmosphere PT. Barrow Alaska

                1.4-21    Typical Carbon Monoxide Concentration Found in Nonurban Areas

                1.4-22    Carbon Monoxide Averages in urban Areas

                1.4-23    Hydrocarbon Concentration in Urban Air Samples

                1.4-24    Oxidant Concentrations in Selected cities

                1.4-25    Maximum Pesticide Levels, found in Air Samples

                1.4-26    Historical Data of Sulfur Dioxide Concentrations


1.5          Sampling and Analysis

                1.5-1      National Air quality Standards Reference Methods

                1.5-2      Common ambient Air Pollution Sampling Techniques

                1.5-3      Recommended Sampling and Analysis Methods for Air Pollutants

                1.5-4      Recommended Units for Air Sampling and Analysis

                1.5-5      Ringelmann smoke charts

1.5-6      Principle Methods for Monitoring Aerosols

1.5-7      Sampling Devices for Particulates

1.5-8      Methods for Sampling Airborne Microorganisms

1.5-9      Limits of Particle-size Measuring Equipment

1.5-10    Collection Devices Used in Source Sampling

1.5-11    Traverse Point Locations for Velocity Measurement or for Multipoint Stack Sampling

1.5-12    Pilot tube Varieties

1.5-13    Selection of Number of Traverse Points

1.5-14    Location of traverse Points in Circular Stacks

1.5-15    Pilot Tube Calculation Sheet

1.5-16    Particle Collection and Sampling Velocity

1.5-17    Errors due to departure from Isokinetic Sampling

1.5-18    Particulate Sampling Trains

1.5-19    Collection Efficiency by Particle Size for Selected Filter Papers

1.5-20    Collection Characteristics of Sampling Media

1.5-21    Characterization and Identification of Single Particles

1.5-22    Analytical Sensitivities and Detection Limits for Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

1.5-23    Summary of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbon Spectral Methods

1.5-24    Sampling Devices for Gases

1.5-25    Head-Loss Characteristics for Several Types of Common Gas Scrubbers and Impingers

1.5-26    Outline of sampling and Analytical Procedures in air Analysis

1.5-27    Collection Efficiency of Gas Washing Bottle for Various Contaminants

1.5-28    Summary of Cold Bath Solutions for Sampling Use

1.5-29    Adsorption Capacity of Charcoal at 15 degrees Celsius for Sampling Gases

1.5-30    Solubility of Sampled Gases in distilled Water 20 degrees Celsius

1.5-31    Sampling of Oxides in Water

1.5-32    Types of SO2 Monitors

1.5-33    Types of Nitrogen Oxide Monitors


 Section 2 – Effects of Air Pollution

2.1          Biological Effects on humans

            2.1-1      Correlations of Standard Mortality Ratios for Lung Cancer and Bronchitis  (UK, 1964)

            2.1-2      Summary of biological Effects on Human Subjects (by chemical)

2.1-3      Effects of Air Pollution in Per Cent as Reported for California and its Major Regions 1958-1960. (eye irritation, breathing trouble etc…)

2.1-4      Comparison of Industrial Threshold Limit Values with Minimal Air Pollution values

2.1-5      Acute Effects of Carbon Monoxide

2.1-6      Summary of Reported Effects of Inhalation of Hydrogen Chloride by Humans

2.1-7      Lead Parameters in the Human Body

2.1-8      Mean Blood Lead for Experimental Exposures to Atmospheric Lead

2.1-9      Summary of Mercury Toxicity Data Via Inhalation

2.1-10    Comparison of Toxicological Actions of NO2 and O3

2.1-11    Lung Lobule

2.1-12    Representation of Respiratory Tract

2.1-13    Subdivisions of Lung Volume: Man

2.1-14    Values Useful in Pulmonary Physiology

2.1-15    Respiratory Frequency, Tidal Volume, and Minute Volume: Vertebrates

2.1-16    Mean Respiratory Air Flow Measurements in healthy Young Men

2.1-17    Calculated and Measured Retention of Aerosol Particles

2.1-18    Possible Fate of Particle after its Deposit in Pulmonary Space

2.1-19    Deposition of Particles in Respiratory Tract

2.1-20    Blood Erythrocite and Hemoglobin Values at or Near Sea Level: Man

2.1-20    Blood Erythrocite and Hemoglobin Values at Altitude: Man

2.1.22    Comparison of Three Major Air Pollution Crises: Meuse River Valley, 1930; Donora, PA, 1948; London, 1952

2.1-23    Cumulative incidence of Air Pollution in the Donora Area, 25 October to 2 November, 1948.

2.1-24    Crude Mortality Data Relative to Donora Episode

2.1-25    Symptoms Produced by Air Pollution in Donora

2.1-26    Incidence of Illness among Persons in the Donora Area

2.1-27    Classification of Severity of Illness Produced by Air Pollution in Donora

2.1-28    Analysis of Donora Smog Solids

2.1-29    Comparison of Water Soluble Extract from Donora Smog Solids and of Similar Samples from Two other Localities

2.1-30    Registered Deaths in London Administrative County, By Age (related to 1952 pollution episode)

2.1-31    Number and Ratio of Deaths Relative to 1952 London Episode

2.1-32    Number of Deaths in London or New York Air Pollution Episodes as a Function of the Product of Sulfur Dioxide and Suspended Particulate Concentrations





Last modified: 9/15/2008 2:10 PM by M. Potter

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